Raichlen, D.A., Polk, J.D., 2013. Linking brains and brawn: exercise and the evolution of human neurobiology. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 280.
This paper argues that hominin encephalisation may have arisen through the action of neurotrophins and growth factors, which are known to be positively related to brain growth and enhanced cognition within and across a range of species. The authors argue that these were upregulated during hominin evolution in association with increased endurance locomotion.